The SSA has set guidelines for eligibility for their social security disability insurance programs. This is for people who are not born disabled as there are other programs that cater to them. For these tests, if one incurs a disability from an accident (for example), one would qualify for benefits if one had worked for a total of 7 years in the past.
One could also qualify if one had worked at least 5 years out of 10 leading up to the period the disability began. The test is based and depends on the age such disability was incurred or began. This “duration of work” does not have to fall within a particular period of time.